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  • 증평출장안마ω예약☞증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평포항 마사지 후기›╝[증평출장 카톡]┲증평음경 마사지⇩증평부천역 안마방❈증평안마방 비아그라↩증평마사지 야동▀증평스웨디시 마사지 단점

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    목포출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    증평출장안마⇩예약↠증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평여성 마사지›➳[증평스킨쉽 마사지]✄증평남성전용마사지☝증평금정 마사지.증평광안리 안마방→증평장기동 안마방➠증평안마방 위험

    The governments of more than 190 nations 태백울산 삼산 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    증평출장안마‿출장부르는법←증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평출장안마›◄[증평분당 마사지 추천]┩증평태국여행 마사지▥증평성인 마사지↺증평안마방 입문↺증평안마방 오전☳증평방이동 여관

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    증평출장안마⇪24시출장샵♕증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평오피스 걸›┢[증평강남 안마방 후기]χ증평대만 마사지♟증평가락시장 마사지☏증평성인마사지ネ증평의정부 모텔 가격➚증평건전 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 수원출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    증평출장안마■24시출장샵┛증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평까치산 안마방›╡[증평마사지 ssul]モ증평대딸 마사지♝증평안마방 동창↼증평안마방 떡╪증평김포 안마방﹃증평태국 마사지 불법

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 공주만짜이 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    증평출장안마↔예약┗증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평천안 퇴폐›╜[증평안마방 엄마]⇟증평범일동 안마방シ증평요괴 마사지◦증평상주 안마방⇙증평모텔ロ증평잠실 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    증평출장안마증평안마사 자격증

  • 과천안마방 카운터
  • 증평트레이너 마사지
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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    증평출장안마⇂예약금없는출장샵➴증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평부산 서면 모텔›♦[증평슈얼 마사지]⊥증평자궁 마사지♨증평안마방 모닝콜♫증평수내 마사지✿증평부천 안마방↶증평방이동 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 문경구의동 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

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    전라북도남자 안마방 바카라사이트 전라북도해수욕 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 온라인카지노.xyz – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    증평출장안마♨예약금없는출장샵╀증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평문산 마사지›㊣[증평일본 av 마사지]┎증평엘프 마사지♬증평천안 출장❤증평구리 모텔 추천↸증평대구 모텔 가격┤증평오송 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 홍성감성마사지 뜻 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    증평출장안마⇩출장부르는법↩증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평진접 안마방›✙[증평양재 안마방]▤증평텔레그램 야동█증평호치민 리버티 마사지┓증평평택역 안마방⇊증평오십견 마사지☎증평두피 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    평택안마방 풋잡
    부산동래 마사지 천안출장샵 청도지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성전용 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    증평출장안마╡예약➳증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평안마방 오픈시간›╇[증평안마방 움짤]↩증평관자놀이 마사지큐증평코타키나발루 마사지╥증평초대남 마사지ル증평유성 안마방 후기⇗증평방콕 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 평택출장샵 .

    증평출장안마↘예약✘증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평모텔 보도›☝[증평아로마 마사지 부작용]卐증평타이 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ§증평방이동 마사지✐증평일산 안마방┥증평안마방 잠╬ 증평마사지 도구

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 온라인카지노 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 정읍국산 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    증평출장안마☆예약♐증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평목포 모텔 추천›╔[증평성기 마사지]△증평마사지 크림╧증평서울 안마방◆증평편두통 마사지╦증평마사지 노모↠증평천안 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    증평출장안마┢예약금없는출장샵♥증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평상대보호구역›➺[증평사상 안마방]☚ 증평안마방 24시간♗증평안마방 마무리☲증평부산 모텔 아가씨✪증평가슴 커지는 마사지☈증평fc2 오일 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 광양안마방 얼마냐 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 전주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 창원출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 무안안마방 에이스 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that egw.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    증평출장안마▶출장부르는법⇘증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평안마방 야동›⇉[증평다낭 vip 마사지]§증평태국 마사지 야동☍증평필리핀 안마방η증평여수 안마방┣증평안마방 팁1증평현풍 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 원주출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 군산출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    증평출장안마◦24시출장샵↢증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평출장시›♗[증평부산 해운대 안마방]テ증평신데렐라 안마방ν증평청주 마사지£증평성남 안마방☂증평안마방 몰카 유출~ 대화 대박임❥증평양재 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    진주마사지 노출
    카지노사이트 제주도안마방 입문 대구출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    증평출장안마▥출장부르는법↩증평싸인볼 마사지‹증평혼자 안마방›╛[증평포항 양덕 마사지]┈증평카카오출장↕증평정자 안마방☼증평영대 안마방↓증평김원중 안마방ェ증평안마방 입에 사정

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.증평출장안마증평용산구 안마방♔증평안마방 물다이 몰카├[증평오십견 마사지]증평대구 여관リ증평모텔 출장안마⇞증평태국 마사지 마무리❤증평멜라니♥수원출장안마예약증평카오산로드 마사지⊙증평타이마사지 가격ヒ【증평마사지 가격】증평천호 안마방❥증평진주 안마방π증평장안동 마사지◑증평청주 안마방↳증평출장안마문경김해 안마방증평타이 마사지 후기☋증평여인숙 가격♡[증평안양 안마방 후기]증평마사지 ㅁㅎㅎト증평부산 서면 모텔☟증평부산 모텔 촌▦증평동대구 마사지☏증평해변 마사지┯증평전민동 마사지的《증평타이 마사지 팁》증평모텔 전화➴증평스웨디시 마사지 후기⇥증평타이 안마방↡증평안마방 모닝콜⊙증평카카오출장★증평강서구 안마방╒〔증평제주시청 마사지〕증평오류동 안마방⇀증평왕십리 마사지▥증평포항 아가씨△증평상록수역 안마방✔증평여성 전용 아로마 마사지ム증평베이징 안마방▫〖증평국노 torrent〗증평출장안마☪증평평택역 마사지◇증평부산 서면 모텔❂증평손가락 마사지☠24시출장샵해남2콩 안마방출장부르는법증평안마방 텀블╧증평계양구 안마방↺{증평중리동 안마방}증평비키니 마사지⇂증평안마방 초이스 torrent↕증평의정부 모텔 가격ミ증평셀프 마사지ソ증평출장안마증평출장안마진주출장샵증평부산 해운대 출장증평용암동 모텔증평정지훈 안마방증평금천구 마사지증평출장안마증평여관 아가씨⇌증평모텔 아가씨♈<증평금정 안마방>증평부천역 안마방←증평안마방 위키◘증평fc2 오일 마사지ノ증평안마방 몇시╫울진마사지 추천

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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